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Distinguishing Hybrid and Indictable Offences

All of the offences in the Criminal Code of Canada can be classified as summary, indictable or hybrid. The classification of an offence generally tells us how serious the offence is and what types of punishments are available to the Crown. As criminal defence lawyers operating in the city of Toronto we routinely deal with all three types of offences. If you are accused of a crime, it is useful to understand the differences between these three categories of offences to better understand the charge against you. Summary Offences Summary offences are minor offences which, by law, carry relatively lenient penalties. According to section 787 of the Criminal Code of Canada, summary conviction offences can be punished by a maximum of six months imprisonment, a fine of $2000, or both. Some examples of summary offences are causing a disturbance; making harassing telephone calls, taking a motor vehicle without the owner’s…

8 Jul 2009

Courtroom Etiquette

7 Jul 2009

As criminal defence lawyers, we have been appearing in Toronto courts and courts in the Greater Toronto Area for so long that proper court etiquette has become second nature to…

Bail Variations

29 Jun 2009

Individuals facing criminal charges are often released on bail while they await trial. When released, the accused individual will be provided with a “recognizance” or other Court order which dictates…

Beyond A Reasonable Doubt

23 Jun 2009

Most people know that for an individual to be convicted of a criminal offence, the Crown must prove his or her guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt”. At the same time,…

Toronto Lawyers, Kostman & Pyzer...

19 Jun 2009

On June 1st, 2001 senior Toronto lawyers ( Toronto lawyers with ten years or more of experience) made headlines earlier this week when they voted to stop accepting legal aid…

Domestic Assault Charges

10 Jun 2009

In our experience as criminal defence lawyers, domestic assault charges are very common in Toronto courts. Individuals accused of domestic assault are often deprived of the support system usually provided…

Can I Sign Bail – What is a Surety?

9 Jun 2009

When one of our clients is accused of a crime and taken into custody, our first responsibility as criminal defence lawyers is to help that client get out on bail.…